Nutritional Management in Cardiovascular disease
Cardiac Physiology in Health and Disease
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) encompasses several conditions affecting the heart and blood vessels, including atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease (CAD), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, peripheral artery disease (PAD), hypertension (HTN), and heart failure (HF).
:Nutritional Management in CVD
Registered dietitians provide knowledge and facilitate behavior change necessary to make lasting lifestyle changes.
These changes can result in a decrease of TC (7% to 21%), LDL-C (7% to 22%), and triglycerides (11% to 31%).
Sources of the different fats:
Saturated fats: High-fat meats, fried meats, full-fat dairy (whole milk, cream, cheese), butter, and lard.
Food labels and to choose foods with zero grams trans-fat and less than 3 grams of saturated fat per serving.
Replacing butter with olive oil, grilling salmon burgers instead of traditional burgers.
Encourage intake of fish high in omega-3 fatty acids, olive, canola oil, nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Omega-3 Fatty Acid:
Omega-3 Fatty Acids two or more servings per week of fatty fish.
Decrease in atherosclerosis, blood pressure, left ventricular mass, and heart rate with an increase in stroke volume.
Prevention: Two 4-ounce (120g) servings of fatty fish per week.
Heart Diseases: servings two or more 4-ounce (120g) of fatty fish per week.
Fiber: 25 to 35 grams daily, including 7 to 13 grams of soluble fiber.
Fats: 25% to 35% calories (<7% calories from saturated fat).
Protein: 15% to 20% calories.
Carbohydrates: 45% to 60% calories.
Kane, K. & , K., 2019. Advanced medical nutrition therapy, Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Raymond, J. L., & Morrow, K. (2020). Krause’s food & the nutrition care process . Saunders.
Nelms, M., & Sucher, K. P. (2019). Nutrition Therapy and Pathophysiology Cengage Learning.
Roth GA, Mensah GA, Johnson CO, et al. Global Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases and Risk Factors, 1990-2019: Update From the GBD 2019 Study. J Am Coll Cardiol.